[Courses] [python] Lesson 4: Modules and command-line arguments
akkana at shallowsky.com
Fri Jul 8 20:56:44 UTC 2011
Today's lesson will go into some details of building a larger program.
But first, a couple of digressions:
============ Comments ===================
Python's comment character is a hash mark, #. Any time you see #,
anything after it on the line isn't part of the program. It's just a
note to yourself or to anyone else who reads your program.
So comments can be on their own line:
# Print the "99 bottles of beer" song
or they can be on the same line with some Python code:
for i in range(99, 0, -1) : # Loop downward from 99
print i, "bottles of beer" # print the next line of the song
As you write longer programs, it's good to add comments for
anything that might be confusing or hard to read.
=============== Shebang! ============================
Another digression, on how to run your programs more easily. You may have
seen some students including this as the first line of their solutions:
That's a special code that tells the operating system this is a python
program. That way, you can run the program simply by typing the filename;
no need to say "python progname".
#! is called a "shebang" because # is sometimes pronounced "hash" (or
"sharp") and ! is pronounced "bang", and "shebang" is more fun to say
than "hash-bang" or "sharp-bang". You'll see them in scripts of all
languages -- python, perl, ruby, bash etc. If you want to know more
about the "/usr/bin/env" part, see Wikipedia:
If your system uses python3 by default, this is one of those places where
you should say python2 or python2.7 or whatever instead of just python.
If you're on Windows, a shebang line won't help you, but it doesn't hurt to
include one in your programs so they'll be easier to run on Linux and Mac.
============ Importing modules ===================
Okay, let's get back to actual programming.
One of Python's great advantages is that it comes with a huge slew of
built-in libraries, called "modules", to help you do nearly anything.
Want to write a web browser or a video editor, or search Twitter, or
figure out where Jupiter is in the sky? There's a Python module to help.
Randall Munroe (of XKCD) thinks so too: http://xkcd.com/353/
Okay, so how do you use a module? Simple: once you find the module
you want, just say "import modulename" at the top of your program.
======== The "sys" module, for command-line arguments ==========
One module you'll use a lot is the sys module, because that's the one
that lets you get command-line arguments.
Here's a program that just prints any arguments you give it:
#! /usr/bin/env python
for arg in sys.argv :
Save that to a file -- I called my program "args" (notice I didn't use
a .py extension, though Windows users might need it). Make it executable:
chmod +x args
Then run it a few times, with different command-line arguments:
$ args 1 2 3
$ args hello, world
When you import the module called sys, you automatically get a
variable called sys.argv that gives you all the command-line arguments
the user typed -- including the program name.
Of course, most of the time you'll want to loop over all the
*other* arguments but not the program name -- you'd want to print
hello, and world, not args and hello, and world.
So how do you get around that? sys.argv is a list so you can use
slices. Remember slices from lesson 3? In this case you want all the
arguments starting with number 1 (0 is the program name). That's
sys.argv[1:]. So you can change the program so the loop reads:
for arg in sys.argv[1:] :
and you'll get exactly what you need: it will print all the arguments
but not the program name.
================= String to int conversion ====================
sys.argv is a list, but each elements is a string. So if you need to
use them as numbers -- for instance, in range(0, sys.argv) -- you
can convert to an integer with int(sys.argvp). If you need a
floating point number, use float() rather than int().
num = int(sys.argv)
for i in range(0, num):
==================== Reading files ========================
A lot of the time, when you're passing arguments to a program, they're
names of files you want to open.
For instance, remember our word count program? Wouldn't that be a lot
more useful if you could give it a filename, and it would print the
number of words in that file?
Here's how you would read from a file in Python: let's say you wanted
to read from that "args" program you just wrote (and you're still in
file = open("args")
for line in file :
print "Read a line:", line
open(filename) gets you a file object. If you loop over it (for line in
file), it reads the file line by line, giving you each line as a string.
It's always a good idea to close files after your program is finished
with them. When your program finishes running, Python will close the file
anyway -- but eventually, when you write bigger programs, they might not
finish right away, and they might have to open a whole bunch of files,
and after a while that could cause problems (it's like when Firefox has
been running for days and it just grows bigger and bigger) ...
so it's good to get in the habit right at the beginning.
Of course, you don't necessarily want to read your "args" file: you
want to read whatever file the user suggested. If you're only reading
one file, that's argument number 1 (remember, 0 is the program name):
file = open(sys.argv)
for line in file :
print "Read a line:", line
========================= Homework ============================
1. With the little example I gave earlier, the one that used
num = int(sys.argv):
if you run it and don't give an argument, you'll get an error.
Why? Can you think of a way to check whether the user forgot to
supply an argument, and print an error message if so?
2. Write a program that takes a filename and prints the number of
lines in the file. (You can check its results with wc -l filename.)
3. How would you extend this so that you can count lines in multiple
files, not just one? So you could say
$ mywordcounter file1 file2 file3
4. Here's a harder problem, an exercise in debugging (which is a big
part of programming, sadly):
a. Write a program that counts words in a file (or multiple files,
if you prefer). Use the same split() and len() you used in
b. Compare the number of words from your program to what wc -w gives.
(If you're on a platform that doesn't have wc, run it on a small
file and count by hand.) Are the answers the same?
c. Here's the debugging part: why aren't they the same?
(You don't have to fix it: just figure out the problem.)
Hint: if you're splitting each line into a list, try printing
the list to see what's in it. In python, if you have a list
called words, you can just say print words -- you don't have to
do anything fancy like you would in some languages.
d. OPTIONAL, harder: fix the problems and make your word count
program give the same answer as wc -w.
Hint 1: one Python function that will come in handy is strip():
it strips off any leading and trailing spaces. So if you have
a string s = " hello, world ", then s.strip() would
give you "hello, world".
By the way, I haven't mentioned Python's documentation, but
most Python modules have excellent online docs. Here's strip():
Hint 2: If you're inside a loop, say, looping over lines, and
you decide you don't care about this line, you can skip to the
next one by saying:
For instance, in a loop where you don't care about negative numbers:
for i in list_of_numbers :
if i < 0 :
You can break out of a loop completely with: break
Don't drive yourself too crazy trying to get an exact match
with wc. There are some special cases where splitting at spaces
might not give the same answer as wc -w, and there are some
other Python modules (specifically re, regular expressions)
that can do a better job. The purpose of this exercise is to
give you a taste of debugging, fixing problems as you find them
and thinking about what special cases might arise.
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